Articles Describing Naturalistic Origins of the Book of Mormon



1830Obadiah Dogberry [Abner Cole], “The Book of Pukei.—Chap. 2.” The Reflector (Palmyra, New York) 3d series, no. 8 (7 July 1830): 60.
1830S. A., “The Golden Bible, or, Campbellism Improved.” Observer and Telegraph (Hudson, Ohio) (18 November 1830).
1830[Editor The Cleveland Herald] , “The Golden Bible.” The Cleveland Herald (Ohio) (25 November 1830): 3.
1830[Editor Rochester Republican], “Book of Mormon.” Rochester Republican (New York) (28 December 1830).
1830[Editor Auburn Free Press], “The Book of Gold.” The Philadelphia Album (Pennsylvania) (18 December 1830): 405. Reprinted from Auburn Free Press (New York) circa December 1830.
1831Alexander Campbell, “Delusions,” Millennial Harbinger, 7 February 1831, 91, 92.
1831David S. Burnett, “Something New.—The Golden Bible.” Evangelical Inquirer (Dayton, Ohio) 1, no. 10 (7 March 1831): 217–19.
1831[Editor, Morning Courier New-York], “Mormon Religion—Clerical Ambition—Western New York—The Mormonites Gone to Ohio,” Morning Courier New-York, For the Country, Vol.VII. no. 563, September 1, 1831
1831O., W. [Owen, William], “Mormon Bible.” Free Enquirer (New York) (3 September 1831): 364.
1831Gimel, “Book of Mormon.” The Christian Watchman (Boston) 12, no. 40 (7 October 1831).
1831“Mormonism,” Cleveland Advertiser, February 15, 1831
1832“N.Y. Evangelist,” “Mormonism.” Boston Recorder (Boston, Massachusetts) 17, no. 41 (10 October 1832). Reprinted from Lockport Balance (New York), circa September 1832.
1833[Editor], “The Mormon Mystery Developed,” The Wayne Sentinel, vol. XI. No. 14 (December 20, 1833)
1834[Editor], “Mormonism.” Christian Register (Boston) (20 December 1834): 76. Reprinted from the Sacket’s Harbor Courier, circa December 1834.
1834Eber D. Howe, Mormonism Unvailed, Painsville: by the author, 1834.
1834[Editor], “Mormon Trial,” Chardon Spectator and Geauga Gazette, Vol. III, No. 38, April 12, 1834.
1834[Editor], “To the Public,” Painsville Telegraph, Vol. V, January 31, 1834, No. 33.”
1834J. A. Briggs, “Origin of the Mormons.” Christian Watchman (Boston) (31 January 1834).
1836Habitator Montium, “Mormonism,” New-York Commercial Advertiser, Vol. XXXIX No?  July 26, 1836.
1838William S. West, A Few Interesting Facts, Respecting the Rise Progress and Pretensions of the Mormons, n.p. 1837.
1838Samuel Williams, Mormonism Exposed, n.p., 1838.
1838Richard Livesey, An Exposure of Mormonism, being a statement of facts relating to the self-styled “Latter day Saints,” and the Origin of the Book of Mormon, Preston: J. Livesey, 1838.
1838Origen Bacheler, Mormonism Exposed: Internally and Externally (New York: n.p., 1838), 5
1840[Anon], A Little Talk, Between John Robinson and his Master about Mormonism, Shewing its Origin, Absurdity, and Impiety, Bedford: W. White, 1840.
1840W. J. Morrish, The Latter-day Saints and the Book of Mormon. A Few Words of Warning from a Minister to his Flock, Ledbury: J. Gibbs, 1840
1841Justus, [Letter on Mormonism, 26 July 1841.] Christian Advocate and Journal (New York) 15, no. 52 (11 August 1841).
1841Tyler Parsons, Mormon Fanaticism Exposed. A Compendium of the Book of Mormon, or Joseph Smith’s Golden Bible. Also, The Examination of its Internal and External Evidences, with the Argument to refute its pretenses to a revelation from God: Argued before the Free Discussion Society in the City of Boston, July, 1841. Between Elder Freeman Nickerson, a Mormon and the Author, Tyler Parsons. Boston: Printed for the Author, 1841.
1841E. G. Lee, The Mormons, or, Knavery Exposed, Frankford, Pennsylvania: E. G. Lee, etc., 1841.
1841William Harris, Mormonism Portrayed, (Warsaw: Sharp & Gamble, 1841)
1842Daniel P. Kidder, Mormonism and the Mormons: A Historical View, New York: G. Lane & P. P. Sandford, 1842.
1842J. B. Turner, Mormonism in All Ages: or, The Rise, Progress, and Causes of Mormonism, New York: Platt & Peters, 1842.
1842H. J. A., “Origin of Mormonism.” Wayne County Whig (Lyons) 3, no. 51 (14 September 1842).
1842John A. Clark, Gleaning by the Way, New York: W. J. and J.K. Simon, 1842
1843Henry Caswall, Prophet of the 19th Century, London: Rivington, 1843
1844[Editor], “The Rise and Ruin of the Sect of Mormon.” The Congregational Magazine (September 1844): 641–649.
1844D. E., “The Rise and Progress of the Mormon Faith and People.” Southern Literary Messenger 10 (September 1844): 526–38.
1844James H. Hunt, Mormonism: Embracing the origin, rise and progress of the Sect with an Examination of the Book of Mormon, St. Louis: Ustick and Davies, 1844.
1851Orasmus Turner, History of the Pioneer Settlement, Rochester: William Alling, 1851.
1851Charles Mackay, The Mormons or Latter-day Saints: With Memoirs of the Life and Death of Joseph Smith, the American Mahomet, London: Office of the National Illustrated Library, 1851
1851John L. Dunlop, Joseph Smith, an Imposter: The Substance of a Lecture, Delivered on Monday Evening, June 25, 1851, St. Paul: Chapter House Court, 1851.
1852Joseph Mayhew, The Mormons or Latter-day Saints: A Contemporary History, London, 1852
1853W. Sparrow Simpson, Mormonism: Its History, Doctrines, and Practices, London: A. M. Pigott, 1853.
1853Benjamin G. Ferris, Utah and the Mormons: the History, Government, Doctrines, Customs, and Prospects of the Latter-day Saints, New York: Harper & Brothers, 1854.
1854William John Conybeare, Mormonism, London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1854.
1855O. S. Belisle, Prophets; Mormonism Unveiled, Philadelphia: Wm. White Smith, 1855.
1856John W. Gunnison, The Mormons,. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo, 1856
1857Samuel M. Smucker, The Religious, Social, and Political History of the Mormons, Or Latter-Day Saints,From Their Origin to the Present Time, New York: C. M. Saxton, 1857.
1857John Hyde, Mormonism: Its Leaders and Designs. New York: W. P. Fetridge & Company, 1857.
1860Samuel M. Smucker and H. L Williams,  Life Among the Mormons or the Religious, Social, and political History of the Mormons from their Origins to the Present Time, New York: Hurst and Company, 1860.
1867Pomeroy Tucker, Origin, Rise, and Progress of Mormonism, New York: D. Appleton, 1867.
1873T. B. H. Stenhouse, The Rocky Mountain Saints. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1873.
1877.William D. Purple, “Joseph Smith, The Originator of Mormonism,” Chenango Union, XXX:33, (Norwich, N. Y.: May 3, 1877
1882Mrs. Horace Eaton, Hand-Book on Mormonism, Salt Lake City 1882
1882Robert Patterson, Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? Pittsburg: L. H. Everts, 1882.
1884Clark Braden  and E. L. Kelley, Public Discussion of the Issues between the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and the Church of Christ (Disciples) Held in Kirtland, Ohio, Beginning February 12, and Closing March 8, 1884, between E. L. Kelley, of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and Clark Braden, of the Church of Christ. St. Louis: Clark Braden, 1884.
1885Martin Thomas Lamb, The Golden Bible; or, Book of Mormon. Is it from God? Salt Lake City, 1885.
1885Ellen E. Dickinson, New Light on Mormonism, New York: Funk and Wagnall, 1885
1886Wyl, W[ilhem]. [pseud. for Wilhelm Ritter von Wymetal], Mormon Portraits,  Salt Lake City: Tribune Printing and Publishing Co., 1886.
1888James H. Kennedy, Early Days of Mormonism: Palmyra, Kirkland and Nauvoo, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1888.
1890The Mormon Delusion: Its History, Doctrines, and the Outlook in Utah, Boston: Congregational Sunday-School, 1890.
1890Thomas Gregg, The Prophet of Palmyra: Mormonism, New York: John B. Aden, 1890.
1891William H. Whitsett, “Sidney Rigdon, The Real Founder of Mormonism,” Unpublished manuscript, Library of Congress AC1158
1897 Davis H. Bays, Doctrines and Dogmas of Mormonism Examined and Refuted, St. Louis: Christian Pub. Co., 1897.
1899Lu B. Cake, Peepstone Joe and the Peck Manuscript, New York: L. B. Cake, 1899.
1901Edgar E. Folk, The Mormon Monster o, the Story of Mormonism, Chicago: Fleming H. Revell, 1901
1901Theodore Schroeder, The origin of the Book of Mormon, : re-examined in its relation to Spaulding’s “Manuscript found,Salt Lake City :Salt Lake Ministerial Association
1902I. Woodbridge Riley, The Founder of Mormonism: A Psychological Study of Joseph Smith, Jr., New York: Dodd, Mean, and Company, 1902.
1902William Alexander Linn, The Story of the Mormons from the Date of Their Origin to the Year 1901, New York: McMillan Company, 1902.
1902G. B. Hancock, Mormonism Exposed: Joseph Smith an Imposter and the Book of Mormon a Fraud, Marionville, Missouri: A Dogget, 1902
1902W. L. Crowe, The Mormon Waterloo, St. Paul, Nebraska: n.p., 1902?
1906Daniel Sylvester Tuttle, Reminiscences of a Missionary Bishop, New York: Bible House, 1906.
1909Josiah F. Gibbs, Lights and Shadows of Mormonism, Salt Lake City: Salt Lake Tribune Publishing, 1909.
1910Samuel Traum, Mormonism Against Itself, Cincinnati: Standard Publishing, 1910
1912Eduard Meyer, Ursprung und Geschichte der Mormonen [ Origin and History of the Mormons], Halle: Niemeyer, 1912.
1914Charles Shook, The True Origin of the Book of Mormon, Cincinnati, Ohio: The Standard Pub. Co, 1914
1917Walter F. Prince, “Psychological Tests for the Authorship of the Book of Mormon” American Journal of Psychology 28 (July 1917): 373-89
1919“Authorship of the Book of Mormon,” American Journal of Psychology, 30 (1919): 66-72
1919William Earl La Rue, The Foundations of Mormonism: A Study of the Fundamental Facts in the History and Doctrines of the Mormons from Original Sources, New York: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1919.
1919George Seibel, The Mormon Saints The Story Of Joseph Smith, His Golden Bible, And The Church He Founded, Pittsburg: Lessing Co., 1919.
1926James H. Snowden, The Truth about Mormonism, New York: George Duran, 1926
1930Bernard DeVoto, “The Centennial of Mormonism,” American Mercury 19, no. 73 (January 1930): 5.
1931Harry M. Beardsley, Joseph Smith and His Mormon Empire (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1931), 81.
1932George Bartholomew Arbaugh, Revelation in Mormonism: Its Character and Changing Forms, Chicago: University of Chicago, 1932.
1945Fawn Brodie, No Man Knows My History: The Life of Joseph Smith, the Mormon Prophet, 2d ed. rev. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1971
1948James Black, New forms of the old faith : being the Baird Lecture delivered in 1946-47 under the title extra-church systems /​ James Black, London: Nelson, 1948
1950L. Rumble, Mormons or Latter Day Saints, St. Paul: Radio Replies Press, 1950
1954Kimball Young, Isn’t One Wife Enough? New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1954.
1957Thomas F. O’Dea, The Mormons, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957
1963Hal Houghey, “A Parallel”: The Basis of the Book of Mormon, Concord, CA: Pacific Publishing, 1963
1964Wesley M. Jones, A Critical Study of Book of Mormon Sources, Detroit: Harlo Press, 1964
1971John Phillip Walker, ed., Dale Morgan on Early Mormonism: Correspondence & A New History, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1986.
1977Howard A. Davis, Donald R. Scales & Wayne L. Cowdrey, Who Really Wrote the Book of Mormon? Santa Ana: Vision House Publishers, 1977.
1978Walter Martin, The Maze of Mormonism, Ventura: Regal Books, 1978.
1979John R. Kruegar, An Analysis of the Names of Mormonism, Bloomington, Indiana: The Selbstverlag Press, 1979, 18.
1979Floyd C. McElveen, The Mormon Illusion: What the Bible Says About the Latter-day Saints, Ventura, California: Regal Books, 1979.
1981Klaus J. Hansen, Mormonism and the American Experience, Chicago: University of Chicago, 1981
1981Wesley P. Walters, “The Use of the Old Testament in the Book of Mormon,” Masters Thesis, Covenant Theological Seminary, St. Louis, 1981.
1984Sterling McMurrin, “An Interview with Sterling McMurrin,” Dialogue, Vol.17, No.1 (Spring 1984) p.25.
1984Lawrence Foster, Religion and Sexuality: The Shakers, the Mormons, and the Oneida Community. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1984.
1985Scott C. Dunn, “Spirit Writing: Another Look at the Book of Mormon,” Sunstone, June 1985, 16–26.
1986G. St. John Stott, “The Seer Stone Controversy: Writing the Book of Mormon,” Mosaic: Literature and Altered States of Consciousness, XIX/3 (Summer 1986) 35–53.
1992Robert N. Hullinger, Answer to Skepticism: Why Joseph Smith Wrote the Book of Mormon, (St. Louis, MO: Clayton, 1980),
1992Harold Bloom, The American Religion: The Emergence of the Post-Christian Nation (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992)
1993Brent Metcalfe, “The Priority of Mosiah: A Prelude to Book of Mormon Exegesis,” in Brent Lee Metcalfe ed., New Approaches to the Book of Mormon, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1993, 395–444.
1994John L. Brooke, The Refiner’s Fire: The Making of Mormon Cosmology, 1644–1844, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
1994Wesley Walters and Michael Marquardt, Inventing Mormonism: Tradition and the Historical Record, Salt Lake City: Smith Research Associates, 1994
1998William D. Morain, The Sword of Laban: Joseph Smith Jr. and the Dissociated Mind, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1998
1999Robert D. Anderson, Inside the Mind of Joseph Smith: Psychobiography and the Book of Mormon, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1999.
1999Mark D. Thomas, Digging in Cumorah: Reclaiming Book of Mormon Narratives, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1999
2000David Persuitte, Joseph Smith and the Origins of The Book of Mormon, 2nd ed., Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland and Co., 2000
2000Lamar Peterson, The Creation of the Book of Mormon: A Historical Inquiry, Salt Lake City: Freethinker Press, 2000, 95.
2002Richard Abanes, One Nation Under Gods: A History of the Mormon Church, New York: Basic Books, 2002.
2002Grant H. Palmer, An Insider’s View of Mormon Origins, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2002
2002Edwin Firmage Jr., “Historical Criticism and the Book of Mormon: A Personal Encounter,” in Dan Vogel and Brent Metcalfe, eds., American Apocrypha: Essays on the Book of Mormon, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2002, 1–16.
2002Susan Staker, “Secret Things, Hidden Things: The Seer Story in the Imaginative Economy of Joseph Smith,” in in Dan Vogel and Brent Metcalfe, eds., American Apocrypha: Essays on the Book of Mormon, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2002, 235–74
2002David P. Wright, “Isaiah in the Book of Mormon: Or Joseph Smith in Isaiah,” in Dan Vogel and Brent Metcalfe, eds., American Apocrypha: Essays on the Book of Mormon, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2002, 157–234.
2002Robert M Price, “Joseph Smith: Inspired Author of the Book of Mormon,” in Dan Vogel and Brent Metcalfe, eds., American Apocrypha: Essays on the Book of Mormon, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2002, 321–66.
2003Jon Krakauer, Under the Banner of Heaven: A Story of Violent Faith, New York: Doubleday, 2003.
2004Dan Vogel, Joseph Smith: The Making of a Prophet, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2004.
2005H. Michael Marquardt, The Rise of Mormonism: 1816–1844, Longwood, Florida: Xulon Press, 2005
2007Dale Broadhurst, Review of Terryl Given’s, By the Hand of Mormon
2008Rick Grunder, Mormon Parallels: a Bibliographic Source, LaFayette, New York: Rick Grunder Books, 2008
2009Craig Criddle, “Sidney Rigdon: Creating the Book of Mormon,” Originally posted: 8 Oct 2005; Revised and updated: 15 Mar 2009,
2010Jerald and Sandra Tanner, Joseph Smith’s Plagiarism of the Bible in the Book of Mormon, Salt Lake City: Utah Lighthouse Ministry, 2010.
2011Thomas Riskas, Deconstructing Mormonism: An analysis of Assessment of the Mormon Faith, Cranford, New Jersey: American Atheist Press, 2011
2012Meredith Ray Sheets and Kendal Sheets, The Book of Mormon: Book of Lies, McLean, Virginia, 1811 Press, 2012.
2013Earl M. Wunderli, An Imperfect Book: What the Book of Mormon Tells Us About Itself, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2013.
2016Richard S. Van Wagoner, Natural Born Seer: Joseph Smith American Prophet 1805–1830, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2016.
2017Jeremy Runnells, Letter to a CES Director, March 1, 2015,
2017“Could Joseph Smith have written the Book of Mormon?” at
2017Chris Johnson and Duane Johnson, “Comparison of The Book of Mormon And The Late War Between the United States and Great Britain,”  and “hidden in Plain Sight,” at
2017Wayne L. Cowdrey, Howard A. Davis, and Arthur Vanick, “Spalding Research Associates,” at
2017Rafael Martinez, “Behind the Book of Mormon,”
2017C. B. Brooks, The Nonbeliever’s Guide to The Book of Mormon, Durham: Pitchstone Publishing, 2017